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Effect of Caffeine on Biofilm Formation and Capsule Size on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Caffeine is a stimulant naturally found in coffee beans and is consumed daily by millions of people. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a gram-negative opportunistic microbe known to be the main cause for pneumonia in cystic fibrosis and is observed in many hospital-acquired infections.
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Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows
Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on plasma concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids or rumen endotoxin was evidenced. Taken together, our results demonstrated that feeding barley grain steeped in 0.5% LA modulated both energy status and innate immunity of dairy cows fed relatively high levels (45% of dry matter) of dietary concentrate.
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Feeding High Proportions of Barley Grain Stimulates an Inflammatory Response in Dairy Cows
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of feeding increasing proportions of barley grain on acute phase response in lactating dairy cows. Eight cannulated primiparous (60 to 140 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 4 diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. The experimental period lasted for 21 d, with 11 d of adaptation and 10 d of measurements. Cows were fed the following diets: 1) no barley grain in the diet, 2) 15% barley grain, 3) 30% barley grain, and 4) 45% barley grain, as well as barley and alfalfa silage and alfalfa hay at 85, 70, 55, and 40% [dry matter (DM) basis]. All cows were supplemented with a 15% concentrate mix. Blood and rumen fluid samples were collected on d 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 of the measurement period, and pH and endotoxin content were measured in rumen samples. Concentrations of serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma were measured by ELISA. Feeding high proportions of barley grain at 0, 15, 30, and 45% of DM was associated with lower feed intake (32.6, 32.9, 27.34, and 25.18 kg/d ± 1.30, respectively), lower ruminal pH (6.8, 6.7, 6.7, and 6.5 ± 0.03, respectively), and higher DM intake (13.33, 15.28, 14.68, and 16.04 ± 0.63 kg/d, respectively) and milk production (27.2, 28.2, 29.0, and 31.0 ± 1.2 kg/d, respectively). Ruminal endotoxin increased in cows receiving 30 and 45% barley grain (5,021, and 8,870 ± 393 ng/mL, respectively) compared with those fed no grain or 15% barley grain (654 and 790 ± 393 ng/mL, respectively). Plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and C-reactive protein increased in cows given higher (30 and 45%) proportions of grain. Plasma haptoglobin was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding dairy cows high proportions (30 and 45% DM basis) of barley grain was associated with lower feed intake and rumen pH, increased endotoxin in the rumen fluid, and stimulation of an inflammatory response.
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